In physics, the second law of thermodynamics says that heat flows naturally from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature, and heat doesn’t flow in the opposite direction of its own accord.
The law is certainly borne out in everyday observation — when was the last time you noticed an object getting colder than its surroundings unless another object was doing some kind of work? You can force heat to flow away from an object when it would naturally flow into it if you do some work — as with refrigerators or air conditioners — but heat doesn’t go in that direction by itself.
You have many ways to turn heat into work. You may have a steam engine, for example, that has a boiler and a set of pistons, or you may have an atomic reactor that generates superheated steam that can turn a turbine.
A heat engine turns heat into work.
Engines that rely on a heat source to do work are called heat engines; you can see the principle behind a heat engine in the preceding figure. A heat source provides heat to the engine, which does work. The waste heat left over goes to a heat sink, which effectively has an infinite heat capacity, because it can take such a large amount of heat energy without changing temperature The heat sink could be the surrounding air, or it could be a water-filled radiator, for example. As long as the heat sink is at a lower temperature than the heat source, the heat engine can do work — at least theoretically.
Heat supplied by a heat source is given the symbol (for the hot source), and heat sent to a heat sink is given the symbol (for the cold heat sink). With some calculations, you can find the efficiency of a heat engine. The efficiency is the ratio of the work the engine does, W, to the input amount of heat — the fraction of the input heat that the engine converts to work:
If the engine converts all the input heat to work, the efficiency is 1.0. If no input heat is converted to work, the efficiency is 0.0. Often, the efficiency is given as a percentage, so you express these values as 100 percent and 0 percent.
Because total energy is conserved, the heat into the engine must equal the work done plus the heat sent to the heat sink, which means that = + . Therefore, you can rewrite the efficiency in terms of just andWhat does indirect sunlight mean? Safety tips for managers who are at risk for violence? How to set up two monitors? What does reconstruction mean? What does a clove of garlic look like? What are some practical tips on early parenting? Why do i have wilted leaves and brown dry tips on my pot plants? Why do penn and teller reveal tricks? How to clean your hairbrush? How to say love in spanish? How to lose belly fat in a month? How to change your netflix region? How to eat out a gurl? What college football games are on tonight? What does indifferent mean? How to contact ebay? How does tax tips work? How to weigh less on the scale tricks? Treat others how you want to be treated? How to shave your pubes? How to watch succession? What is kike mean? What does woosah mean? How to switch accounts on facebook? How to do easy tricks on a fingerboard? How to walkie talkie on apple watch? How to know if i have a yeast infection? Who has the most hat tricks soccer? What is the meaning of my name in the bible? how to turn off xbox 1 voice helper How to treat salmonella? How to turn off do not disturb on iphone? What does it mean to be ace? What does scar tissue look like? What is yin and yang? What are impacted wisdom teeth? What happens if i leave the tips of my hair in oil for too long? What does fortify mean? Where do the tips go papa johns online order? What are macarons made of? What are problems? What do you do if a fork truck tips over? What does a pre trial mean? What does hybrid mean? How to get rid of scratchy throat? What is ashura? What is the spiritual meaning of seeing a turtle? What is the meaning of assail? how to diable chrome helper How to use countif function in excel? How to change your gmail name? How to cram for a test psychology tips? How to cook filet mignon? What does legacy mean? How to tell if a man is taking viagra? How to do a drop down in excel? How tall is linus from linus tech tips? How to turn off icloud photos? What does brown tips on leaves mean? What is the catholic meaning of easter? What is capital murder? Tricks for when your 2 year old boy doesn't want to fish lon? What is the meaning of scientific method? How long to microwave corn on the cob? How to eat flaxseed? Tips on how to play lotto and win? What does horizontal mean? What is blackfishing? How to keep brown sugar soft? What is gene expression? What does mlb mean? What is erythritol? How much does it cost to get married? Tips when building pool in home? What is a jayhawk? What does surmise mean? How to make peanut butter fudge? What is the meaning of justin? What time does heb pharmacy close? What does wc mean? What is the meaning of jeopardize? What are bits on twitch? What does flacid mean? What does it mean when your hand itches? how to install a spa cover helper What is the meaning of particular? how to rerun rails helper How to make a google account default? What does subsidized mean? How to delete apps on macbook? which is not true about helper t (th) cells? bio 256 What is the difference between adjusted fross income and income from wages and tips? How to get a fake number? What are signs of lupus? How to cancel subscriptions? Warframe how does k drive tricks equate to standing? How to get rid of blackheads at home? What does asexuality mean? How to pay with venmo balance? What does kowtow mean? What does linguistic mean? how to get rid of helper in city of heroes