First law of Thermodynamics Formula

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

The second law of thermodynamicsThermodynamics is the study of heat and energy. At its heart are laws that describe how energy moves around within a system, whether an atom, a hurricane or a black hole. The first law describes how energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one kind to another. The second law, however, is probably better known and even more profound because it describes the limits of what the universe can do. This law is about inefficiency, degeneration and decay. It tells us all we do is inherently wasteful and that there are irreversible processes in the universe. It gives us an arrow for time and tells us that our universe has a inescapably bleak, desolate fate.

Despite these somewhat deflating ideas, the ideas of thermodynamics were formulated in a time of great technological optimism โ€“ the Industrial Revolution. In the mid-19th century, physicists and engineers were building steam engines to mechanise work and transport and were trying to work out how to make them more powerful and efficient.

Many scientists and engineers โ€“ including Rudolf Clausius, James Joule and Lord Kelvin โ€“ contributed to the development of thermodynamics, but the father of the discipline was the French physicist Sadi Carnot. In 1824 he published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, which laid down the basic principles, gleaned from observations of how energy moved around engines and how wasted heat and useful work were related.

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20 . First law of thermodynamics
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What are the limitations of first law of thermodynamics?

The usual statements of the first law of thermodynamics normally do not take into account Einstein's famous equation E = mc2. To generalize it we should state that the energy AND MASS of an isolated system are conserved since we know that mass can be converted to energy - as demonstrated by fusion reactions. The decrease in mass is exactly counterbalanced by an increase in energy according to Einstein's formula.1. It does not tell us the direction of flow of heat, it only does tell us that when two bodies of different temperatures are there in a closed system undergoing a cyclic process…

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